Joint effects of history of hypertension at baseline and type 2 diabetes at baseline and during follow-up on the risk of coronary heart disease.
Eur Heart J. 2007 Nov 2
Hu G, Jousilahti P, Tuomilehto J.
Department of Health Promotion and Chronic Diseases Prevention, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
To evaluate the joint associations of history of hypertension at baseline and type 2 diabetes at baseline and during follow-up on the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and CHD mortality.
Methods and results
Study cohorts included 49 775 Finnish subjects aged 25-74 without history of CHD and stroke. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of CHD incidence were 1.25, 1.69, 1.25, 1.83, 1.85, 2.39, 2.15, and 3.31 (P-value for trend <0.001), respectively, among men with hypertension I (blood pressure 140-159/90-94 mmHg or using antihypertensive drugs at baseline but blood pressure <160/95 mmHg) only, with hypertension II (blood pressure >/=160/95 mmHg) only, with incident diabetes during follow-up only, with both hypertension I and incident diabetes, with both hypertension II and incident diabetes, with history of diabetes at baseline only, with both hypertension I and history of diabetes, and with both hypertension II and history of diabetes compared with men without either of these diseases. The corresponding HRs of CHD incidence among women were 1.52, 2.37, 2.45, 3.78, 4.56, 5.63, 6.10, and 7.41 (P-value for trend <0.001), respectively. The impact on CHD mortality associated with the different strata of hypertension and diabetes was almost the same or a little stronger compared with that on the CHD incidence.
Hypertension and type 2 diabetes increase the CHD risk independently, and their combination increases the risk dramatically, particularly in women.