Influence of time of day of blood pressure-lowering treatment on cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care. 2011 Jun;34(6):1270-6. Hermida RC, Ayala DE, Mojón A, Fernández JR.
OBJECTIVE We prospectively investigated in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes if bedtime treatment with ≥1 hypertension medications exerts better blood pressure control and cardiovascular risk reduction than conventional therapy, in which all medications are ingested in the morning.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point trial on 448 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, 255 men/193 women, mean ± SD age 62.5 ± 10.8 years, randomized to ingest all their prescribed hypertension medications upon awakening or ≥1 of them at bedtime. Ambulatory blood pressure was measured for 48 h at baseline and again annually or even more frequently (quarterly) after adjustments in treatment.
RESULTS After a median follow-up of 5.4 years, patients ingesting ≥1 hypertension medications at bedtime showed a significantly lower cardiovascular risk (adjusted by age and sex) than subjects ingesting all medications upon awakening (hazard ratio 0.33 [95% CI 0.21-0.54]; P < 0.001). The difference between groups in the adjusted risk of major events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) was also statistically significant (0.25 [0.10-0.61]; P = 0.003). Patients treated at bedtime showed significantly lower sleep time blood pressure mean and higher prevalence of controlled ambulatory blood pressure (62.5 vs. 50.9%; P = 0.013). There was a significant 12% cardiovascular risk reduction per each 5 mmHg decrease in asleep systolic blood pressure during follow-up (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS Among patients with diabetes, treatment with ≥1 hypertension medications at bedtime, compared with all medications upon waking, resulted in improved ambulatory blood pressure control and significantly reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.